Yes Apart from its phytochemical role, gallic acid is also used in tanning, ink dyes, and the manufacture of paper. In this study, the mechanism of action of gallic (GA) and ferulic (FA) acids, a hydroxybenzoic acid and a hydroxycinnamic acid, was assessed on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. AU - Peng, Robert Y. PY - 2015/6/1. It might be a potential preventive and therapeutic agent against gastric cancer metastasis.149 Another study in human glioma cells has indicated that gallic acid inhibits cell proliferation and significantly decreases cell viability, invasion and tube formation.150 All these findings suggest that further investigations on the use of gallic acid as a chemopreventive and therapeutic agent are warranted. Yes The red blood cell (RBC) count was most severely affected by GA at 10 and 14 μM (p < 0.01). The total yield of gallic acid was 30% at 45 h in the case of tara tannin and 9.7% in the case of sumac tannin, in terms of raw material weight (Pourrat et al., 1987). Mango polyphenolics including gallic acid and gallotannins inhibited cell and tumor-cytotoxic activities in BT474 breast cancer cells and xenografts. By contrast, 14 μM GA caused the highest stillbirth rate of 70.9% and the damage rate decreased to 29.2% (Table 1). signs of lethal toxicity were not observed. However, the proliferative marker PCNA has been suggested to be directly related with the proliferation [42], futher work will be conducted to confirm this aspect. GA at 2 μM did not exhibit cytotoxicity. I. Goldberg, J.S. Here, we studied the effects of gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid; a plant-derived polyphenolic compound) on would healing in normal and hyperglucidic conditions, to mimic diabetes, in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Research Institute of Biotechnology, Hungkuang University, Taichung City, Taiwan. The incubation was continued at 37oC and RH 70%–80%. Yes While examining whether GA is effective in alleviating valproic-acid-induced teratogenesis in a chicken embryo model (CEM), we observed embryo hemorrhage and liposis in the musculi longissimus cervicis. Intriguingly, treatment with gallic acid remarkably ameliorated the destabilization of liver tissue architecture caused by N-nitrosodiethylamine intoxication as evidenced by histopathological investigation. ELISA IL-6, ROS, and MDA kits were supplied by R&D Systems (Boston, MA, USA). The western blot analysis revealed that the signal proteins gp130, leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR), growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), Ras, and STAT were all upregulated by GA in a dose-responsive manner (Fig 5B), implicating the signal transduction pathways of Ras/Raf-mediated-growth inhibition and differentiation. Mechanisms of action of antioxidants. The pathological scoring of the malformed changes was developed based on the degree of swelling, liposis (fat accumulation) of the musculi longissimus cervicis (the longest cervical muscle), and hemolysis in the cerebrum and cervical muscle (Fig 2A). Anand A. Zanwar, ... Subhash L. Bodhankar, in Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease, 2014. Some antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid and N-acetylcysteine, were effective at protecting other cell lines [8], implicating distinct substrate-specific and cell-specific responses. However, gallic acid indicated no linear dependence on both [InH] −1 and [InH] −0.5, which showed that the radicals of gallic acid were included in more than one reaction of chain propagation (Figure 6b). GA at higher concentrations (e.g., 10 μM and 14 μM) induced severe RBC collapse and nuclear release (Fig 4). Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan, * E-mail: [email protected] (KCC); [email protected] (CCP), Affiliations Gallic acid and the three other primary hits that inhibited SP-mediated enhancement of HIV infection. GA exhibits renal protection against chronic kidney disease (CKD) [6], and quercetin has raised warning to CKD if admitted to long-term administration [7]. No, Is the Subject Area "Chicken eggs" applicable to this article? In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the hepatocarcinogenic effect of N-nitrosodiethylamine can be abrogated by gallic acid supplementation owing to its affinity to regulate signal transducer and … https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119516.s001. GA is ineffective at protecting PC12 cells from death caused by H2O2 attacks [17]. It has a role as an astringent, a cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor, a plant metabolite, an antioxidant, an antineoplastic agent, a human xenobiotic metabolite, an EC 1.13.11.33 (arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase) inhibitor and an apoptosis inducer.It is a conjugate acid of a gallate. Distinct organs exhibited varying susceptibilities to GA. Because the decreases in body and organ weights occurred simultaneously in a dose-responsive manner, the organ weight related to body weight did not differ in the various treatment groups (Table 2). Orthoquinones formed by the loss of 2 electrons from pyrogallol and catechol (2 adjacent phenol groups) moieties can biochemically participate in enzymatic redox cycling reactions, which can produce superoxides and other ROS [50]. Gallic acid is a naturally occurring plant phenol and a component of tanins. View larger version. Gallic acid was also identified as a versatile scavenger, capable of rapidly deactivating a wide variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) via electron transfer at physiological pH. Table 1: Action of Gallic acid (GA) on different cancer cell line. Moreover, because the Ras/Raf/JAK/STAT pathway is related to skeletal muscle regeneration [19] and Lo et al. The erythrocytes treated with 2 μM GA appeared to be similar in size and shape to those of PBS control subjects. Following the extraction of gallic acid (e.g., by diethyl ether), these processes resulted in good yield of gallic acid (up to about 95% of available tannic acid), with a minimum energy input and probably more economical, as compared to the conventional industrial acid hydrolysis process. The inhibitory effect of gallic acid on the histamine release was mediated by the modulation of cAMP and … Autoxidation of GA increases radical intensity and changes the redox potential to a more oxidative state [28, 29], leading to tremendous formation of semiquinone and superoxide (•O2-) radicals [23, 24]. Moreover, the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase might cause the dissociation of the transferrin-carbonate-ferric ion complex, causing a severe hemolytic response [26, 27]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119516.g003. Hence, the hemolytic effect in embryos might be partially induced by the autooxidative behavior of GA, whereby large amounts of ROS can be generated [14]. [21], we proposed an experimental dose of 2 to 14 μM; any GA toxicity observed in the experiment would, therefore, be far less than that estimated for the daily consumption of 5 g of Chinese tea. 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