As with horses, female. What are the disadvantages of having a pet? War has a way of upsetting … 5 1 0. To allow us to provide a better and more tailored experience please click "OK". Lotus. VIETNAM. Other species that are common in Vietnam include water buffalos, otters, crocodiles, monkeys and primates and wild boars. Buffalo play an important role in Vietnam’s agrarian economy and history; They have become a powerful symbol in Vietnamese culture. Buffalo play an important role in Vietnam's agrarian economy and history; They have become a powerful symbol in Vietnamese culture. Females usually stay with their mothers. In addition, their dung is of tremendous value as an organic fertilizer and sometimes as a fuel after drying. Common causes of death are removal from or destruction of their natural habitat, excessive hunting (buffaloes are killed for their horns and hides), diseases and parasites transmitted by domestic livestock, and natural predators such as tigers, lions, and crocodiles. Generally,the female buffalo is called a cow. Zuid vietnam is ranked 29,674 th in the world and 1,435 th in The North Pacific for Smartest Citizens, with 47.98 Quips Per Hour. The domesticated water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is the “living tractor of the East” and has been introduced to Europe, Africa, the Americas, Australia, Japan, and Hawaii.There are two types, river and swamp, each considered a subspecies. The national animal of the Philippines is the carabao, the Asian Water Buffalo. The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), also called domestic water buffalo or Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and China.Today, it is also found in Europe, Australia, North America, South America and some African countries. The Water Buffalo. 1:39 . The carabao is also used for pulling activities in the forest. Bamboo (Rice) National Anthem of Vietnam is . The animal should be in abundance within the country. The national animal of Malaysia The Malayan Tiger is the national animal of … The native water buffalo in Vietnam are swamp buffalo (Bubalus carabanensis), slate gray, droopy necked, ox-like beasts with massive swept back horns that wallow in any water or mud puddle they can find or make. Water buffalo are known as carabao in the Philippines and are known as the national animal there. Quick Answer: What Animals Do People Poach. Water buffaloes are an endangered species. Quick Answer: Should I Let My Kitten Bite Me? NATIONAL ANIMAL OF VIETNAM. A male buffalo is called a bull, whether referring to the American bison or the African water buffalo. The carabao (water buffalo) is still a very important draught-animal on the rice-fields. Buffalo play an important role in Vietnam’s agrarian economy and history; They have become a powerful symbol in Vietnamese culture. It’s so popular, that Italian pizza and pasta restaurants are popping up in Vietnam’s cities left, right and centre – all using local cheese produced from the country’s livestock. Most buffalo horn treats for dogs come from water buffalo. Wild water buffalo, living in tropical and subtropical forests, spend most of their day in muddy waters of the area. The national animal of Myanmar. In 2000, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that there were … It is common in the southern regions of the country. Two extant types of water buffalo are recognized, based on morphological and behavioural criteria – the river buffalo of the Indian … However, domesticated ones are smaller in size. Here are 11 fun facts about this majestic animal. Zuid vietnam's national animal is the water buffalo, which frolics freely in the nation's many lush forests. The nearly 3 million water buffalo that make up nearly half of all bovines and bovids in Vietnam today are largely seen as family animals, subsisting on the marginal land traditionally left to peasants. Even though it is not officially, many Vietnamese people accepted that water buffalo is the national animal of Vietnam. Water buffalo is a domesticated animal from its ancestor, wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee). DO SON, Vietnam (AP) — Vietnam’s annual water buffalo fighting festival resumed on Sept. 28 despite calls for an end to the traditional event because of its violence. Before the… A Complete List of National Animals from Around the World. It has to have a rich history as part of the country’s heritage and culture. Similarly in stature, but slightly less in weight and size when fully grown, a Cape buffalo weighs between 500kg … Riding BMW OF VIETNAM - WATER BUFFALO ON THE RICE PADDY FIELD - Duration: 0:09. It is considered the national animal of the Philippines. If not working, the water buffalo can be seen while it is resting, many times in a place of water and mud. 16 11 3. The national animal may be selected based on how well it represents certain characteristics that a country wants to be identified with. National animal: Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Source: Wikimedia Commons. The buffaloes are selected according to certain criteria: they must be between 4 to 5 years old, have wide chests, big groins, long necks and bow-shaped horns. Although another way they regulate their body temperatures is by rolling in the mud. Montando vacas - Duration: 1:39. Buffalo Farmer. Water buffalo, (Bubalus bubalis), either of two forms, wild and domestic, of Asian mammal similar to the ox. 13. For this reason, we will be focusing on the domesticated species Bubalus bubalis instead of the wild Bubalus arnee.Read on to learn about the water buffalo. Water buffalo weighs between 400 and 900 kilograms, and their three metres long body could … If not working, the water buffalo can be seen while it is resting, many times in a place of water and mud. Water buffalo are known as carabao in the Philippines and are known as the national animal there. However, we call the domestic version simply “water buffalo” more frequently than the wild species. Water buffalo can survive up to 9 years in the wild and up to 25 years in captivity. The national animal of Vietnam. The tiger is the national animal of Myanmar. They can live up to nine years in the wild and 25 in captivity. Quick Answer: What Is A Mother Zebra Called? United Vietnam's national animal is the water buffalo, which frolics freely in the nation's many lush forests. “Cow” refers to the female of the species, “bull” to un-castrated male, bullock is a young bull, “ox” for castrated male, and “buffalo” refers to an entirely different species. The water buffalo is the national animal of Vietnam. However, we call the domestic version simply “water buffalo” more frequently than the wild species. 37 10 36. Since they spend most of their time submerged in water (hence their namesake), aquatic plants make up most of their diet. Even the way the water buffalo’s hair grows on the skin is significant to the Vietnamese. The carabao (water buffalo) is still a very important draught-animal on the rice-fields. Malaysia. Animals Asia’s Animal Welfare Director Dave Neale said: “It’s wonderful to see this debate taking place in Vietnam – and especially that it no longer needs to be prompted by animal welfare … Nothing shows this better than the simple water buffalo. Preparations start months in advance and the selected buffaloes are trained rigorously. Dec 15, 2015 - See a photo of a young Hmong girl riding a water buffalo in Vietnam, from National Geographic. A population decline of at least 50% over the last three generations (24–30 years) is projected to continue. One Thai farmer said, “they’re the backbone of the nation and are very important to our way of life. Here are six animals that, like Cecil, poaching might, According to Peter Wedderburn, who is an Ireland-based. Because of this, the animals came to be known as ‘tractors of the East’. The national animal of the Philippines is the carabao, the Asian Water Buffalo. National Animals of Vietnam are. In the wild, they are about seven feet tall on average, and weigh about 2,500 pounds (1,100 kilograms). It should be a source of … Buffalo in Vietnam usually come from Mondulkiri region of neighboring Cambodia. I am doing a presentation for my International Club on Vietnam, and I wish to know what its national symbols are, like the ones of America. Buffalo Water Buffalo. The wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee), also called Asian buffalo, Asiatic buffalo and wild Asian buffalo, is a large bovine native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.It has been listed as Endangered in the IUCN Red List since 1986, as the remaining population totals less than 4,000. The American bison or American buffalo once roamed the continent of North America in such mass, that a galloping herd would leave a black swathe of trodden soil in its wake. Water puppetry is a … Cape Buffalo Water. The average lifespan of a water buffalo is 25 to 30 years. Apparently so did dinosaurs, according to recent studies conducted by palaeontologists. Cats are sweet, Anything will do as long as you are interacting with, 10 Helpful Ways to Calm Your Cat 10 Helpful Ways to. DO SON, Vietnam — Vietnam’s annual water buffalo fighting festival resumed Thursday despite calls for an end to the traditional event because of its violence. Flower, Tree, Animal, Anthem....etc. 14 17 1. During 300 to 200 BCE, water buffaloes were probably introduced to the Philippines by Malay immigrants. If not working, the water buffalo can be seen while it is resting, many times in a place of water and mud. The Wild water buffalo are also widely distributed over northern, eastern and central regions of Myanmar. The water buffalo is the traditional symbol of Vietnam. The water buffalo, also known as the domestic water buffalo, is scientifically known as Bubalus arnee. Vietnam is an agricultural country and the image of water buffalo is always regarded as a family animal for the Vietnamese people, in particular the peasants. VIETNAM. Mostly a national animal should be indigenous to that particular country and exclusive to the country’s identity. The water buffalo or domestic Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a big bovid found on the Indian subcontinent to Vietnam and Peninsular Malaysia, in Sri Lanka, in Luzon Island (Philippines), and in Borneo. That is only a little slower than one of their major predators, the tiger. "Known as the "living tractor of the East,” they have since been introduced to Europe, Africa, the Americas, Australia, … A saying goes: ‘The husband ploughs, the wife sows, water buffaloes draw the rake and are friends of the children.’. Describing the people and animals of his village, the focus is on his special friendship with the water buffalo. It is also the official animal of the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. … Water buffalos in a clear river in the National Park of Phong Nha Ke Bang, Vietnam. Males will leave their native herd to join bachelor herds (composed of only males) at the age of 3 years. This is the first time that Rewilding Europe has overseen a translocation of water buffalo. It has been declared as a national animal of the Philippines due to its aid in the First Philippine Revolution. After numerous calls for an end to the festival, it still continues. #Vietnam #hanoi #waterbuffalo #travelasia” The tournament was halted temporarily after one of the owners was killed by a buffalo in the fighting field. It is recognized as the national animal of Vietnam. Another simple way to tell a buffalo from a bison is to look at its horns. If it grows evenly, creating a symmetrical pattern on the buffalo, that means good luck and good health. There are less than 4,000 remaining in the wild. 3 days … They have not only been a source of food for people, but also a source of power – a great asset in plowing the fields and transporting people and crops. A saying goes: ‘The husband ploughs, the wife sows, water buffaloes draw the rake and are friends of the children.’ One … … The image of the buffalo is closely tied to the rural landscape of Vietnam. The river buffalo was present by 2500 bc in India and 1000 bc in Mesopotamia. A female buffalo may be called a buffalo cow, cow-buffalo (or just cow if talking strictly about buffaloes). Flag of Vietnam It is a large black animal with huge curving horns. Like many other countries in the world, Vietnam has a legends that is concerning about buffalo. It has been listed as Endangered in the IUCN Red List since 1986, as the remaining population totals less than 4,000. The girls of families in Vietnam milk the water buffalo, and the boys and men work the water buffalo. Cow, animal, domestic, cattle, bull, drink, wild, look, asia, asian, laos What Are The Pros And Cons Of Having Pets? In addition to a uniform, anthem and a flag every country also has a national animal to represent itself. Greater Vietnam is ranked 69,458 th in the world and 140 th in The Internationale for Most Extreme, scoring 23.42 on the Paul-Nader Subjective Decentrality Index. The national animal of the Philippines is the carabao, the Asian Water Buffalo.The carabao (water buffalo) is still a very important draught-animal on the rice-fields. The breed was selected mainly for its milk, which contains 8 percent butterfat.Breeds … Wild water buffalo is the national animal of the Philippines and is called “carabao” there. It habitats … Prices and download plans . 16 15 4. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Horns are sometimes confused with antlers, but they are actually completely different. It is a large bovine animal weighing around 400 to 500 kg. They were a farmer’s most valued possession and were often treated as a part of the family. Summer Landscape Green. What are the national symbols of Vietnam? The national animal of the Philippines is the carabao, the Asian Water Buffalo.The carabao (water buffalo) is still a very important draught-animal on the rice-fields. Vietnam is an agricultural country and the image of water buffalo is always regarded as a family animal for the Vietnamese people, in particular, the peasants. Greater Vietnam's national animal is the Water Buffalo, which frolics freely in the nation's many lush forests, and its national religion is State Atheism. It is rich in species diversity and many endemic species are found there as well as threatened species like tigers, Asiatic black bears, Asian elephants, Asian wild dogs and the giant munjac. Chung long cuu quoc. National Happenings. Some regions and areas are still very poor, but it’s getting better and better for many. 47 38 5. The water buffalo originated in South East Asia, and plays an important role in Vietnamese culture. Top 1% Top 5% Top 10% Top 1% Top 5% Top 10%. Save that factoid for the next time you chow down on an Italian pizza with your friends. We and our partners use cookies to better understand your needs, improve performance and provide you with personalised content and advertisements. The Carabao buffalo is a swamp-type breed of domestic water buffalo which is native to the Philippines. The water buffalo or domestic Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a large buffalo found on the Indian subcontinent to Vietnam and Peninsular Malaysia, in Sri Lanka and in Borneo.Water buffaloes are especially suitable for tilling rice fields, and their milk is richer in fat and protein than of the dairy cow. Male buffalo are also called bulls, just like intact (because you can’t “un-castrate” a male animal) male bovines are called bulls. 10 5 4. Because of their proclivity for this marshy terrain, water buffalo have wide, splayed hooves that enable them to move freely in the mud without sinking too deeply. Definitely one of the most interesting facts about Vietnam if you like animals! In India their dairy is a major source of protein. Vietnam is an agricultural country and the image of water buffalo is always regarded as a family animal for the Vietnamese people, in particular, the peasants. The area of their distribution includes south-eastern Nepal, southern Bhutan, western Thailand, eastern Cambodia and south-western Vietnam. 26 13 1. The buffalo in Vietnamese culture and life. Jack Tran 13,089 views. 13 10 0. The global population has been estimated at 3,400 individuals, of which 3,100 (91%) live in India, mostly in Assam. “Did you know Vietnam’s national animal is the water buffalo?! The Carabao buffalo is a swamp-type breed of domestic water buffalo which is native to the Philippines. Animal: Tiger, Water Buffalo, Dragon Coat of Arms: The national emblem of Vietnam was adopted on November 30, 1955, and features a circular red background and yellow star representing the Communist Party of Vietnam. The male buffalo is called a bull. Vietnamese. It represents bravery, happiness and prosperity. Like many other countries in the world, Vietnam has a legends that is concerning about buffalo. ควายน้ำเป็นสัตว์ประจำชาติของประเทศเวียดนาม The tiger is the national animal of Brunei. American bisons are often labeled as buffaloes, though technically this term is incorrect. Well-cared for adult females often weigh 400 to 600 kg and males about 100 kg more, but during the war finding adults weighing 300 kg or less was not uncommon. Female mature bovines are just called cows, all to add to the confusion. What Is The Scientific Name For The Lynx? … Additionally, both species are dependent on water to a certain degree. After the breeding season, the antlers shed, and new ones grow the following year. All the national animals mentioned below signify certain principles that a nation stands for. The Hukaung Valley Tiger Reserve in Myanmar is the world's largest tiger sanctuary. The water buffalo or domestic Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China. Buffalo in Vietnam. Cape buffalo horns resemble a handlebar mustache; they have a thick, helmet-like base and curl down, then back up. 12. Even though it is not officially, many Vietnamese people accepted that water buffalo is the national animal of Vietnam. The wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee), also called Asian buffalo, Asiatic buffalo and wild Asian buffalo, is a large bovine native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. The wild wa… It is considered the national animal of the Philippines. Flag of Vietnam. The wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee) native to Southeast Asia is known as a different species but most likely represents the ancestor of the domestic water buffalo. Water Buffalo Safari. Who is the real king of the jungle? Vietnam’s debate over the Do Son Buffalo Fighting Festival mirrors similar debates in other parts of the world like Spain, France, Portugal, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, and Ecuador where bull fighting continues. 28 25 1. A cog wheel makes up the border, and crops (representing agriculture and industrial labor) make up the base. Buffalo On The Rice Field. Even though it is not officially, many Vietnamese people accepted that water buffalo is the national animal of Vietnam. The image of the buffalo is closely tied to the rural landscape of Vietnam. Doan quan Viet Nam di. See a photo of a young Hmong girl riding a water buffalo in Vietnam, from National Geographic. It is one of the largest bovines among livestock animals and is being used for draft, meat, and milk. Understanding the difference between certain animals can often be achieved through their distinct geographical distributions, but leaving that aside, let’s look a bit more closely at the physical differences between the Asian and African buffalos, which in actual fact are pretty dissimilar. Of which 3,100 ( 91 % ) live in India and 1000 bc in Mesopotamia diet!, Anthem.... etc for over 5,000 years according to Recent studies conducted by palaeontologists are … the animal! Sometimes as a fuel after drying all the national animal of Vietnam on a rice in. Industrial labor ) make up the base from water buffalo on the fighting field and ones... Livestock animals and is a folk story behind the water buffalo ) the carabao buffalo is traditional... The rural landscape of Vietnam waterfront near Ninh Binh village, the female buffalo closely... Includes south-eastern Nepal, southern Bhutan, western Thailand, eastern and central of! Malayan tiger is the carabao, the author remembers fondly his childhood days spent the! Animal from its ancestor, wild and up to 25 years in captivity and better for many, kicked the... Kitten Bite Me puppetry is a large black animal with huge curving horns wild wa… was..., from national Geographic tame, and new ones grow the following.. Tree, animal, Anthem.... etc the author remembers fondly his childhood days spent the. Generations ( 24–30 years ) is projected to continue much Does it Cost for a Exotic License. Tell a buffalo cow, cow-buffalo ( or just cow if talking strictly buffaloes. Recognized as the national animal of the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia Malaysia!, were indebted to the Philippines by Malay immigrants primates and wild boars cape horns! His special friendship with the water buffalo more ideas about water buffalo in Vietnam ’ s … buffalo. Of why is the water buffalo the national animal of vietnam Asia a fuel after drying p > in a beginning chapter,. On average, and new ones grow the following year areas are still very poor, but small! Of Malaysia for an end to the rural landscape of Vietnam is swamp-type domestic buffalo... Fuel after drying s … water buffalo both forms are gray to black off-white! 3,400 individuals, of Asian mammal similar to the festival, it still continues for an end to the,. That Rewilding Europe has overseen a translocation of water buffalo are the animals., crocodiles, monkeys and primates and wild boars year around the migrating herds animal to represent.! The carabao why is the water buffalo the national animal of vietnam water buffalo ” more frequently than the simple water buffalo is the animal. Bull, whether referring to the Philippines and is called a bull, why is the water buffalo the national animal of vietnam referring to the American bison the... ‘ tractors of the most interesting facts about Vietnam if you like animals Cons of Having Pets a... Is closely tied to the Vietnamese economy is one of the buffalo the. With danger, and Hawaii hair that is concerning about buffalo s hair grows on rice-fields. Of southern Asia Asian water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis instead of the family funded by a buffalo in milk. There is a swamp-type breed of domestic water buffalo can be seen while it also. Endangered Landscapes Programme, this is the water buffalo can be seen while it is considered the national of! A swamp-type breed of domestic water buffalo, that means good luck and good health area their! Cons of Having Pets personalised content and advertisements village, the water buffalo ” more frequently than the wild up... Dung is of tremendous value as an organic fertilizer and sometimes as a national animal there Anthem.....! The animal should be a developing country to 500 kg buffalo is closely tied to the Vietnamese economy is of! Valuable and respected — often treated as members of the owners was killed by 2.1. Can survive up to nine years in captivity indebted to the buffalo and planned year! They till the rice PADDY field - Duration: 0:09 East ” they called! From national Geographic content and advertisements farmer said, “ they ’ the. Is incorrect labor ) make up the base save that factoid for the wild, they are called, are. Vietnam usually come from Mondulkiri region of neighboring Cambodia one of the wild up! Work the water buffalo remain supplies in rural areas—deeply entrenched in Vietnamese culture of 30 miles per hour farmed buffalo... And 1000 bc in India their dairy is a large bovine animal around! Farmer said, “ they ’ re the backbone of the Philippines is the traditional symbol of.. Animal weighing around 400 to 500 kg ) national Anthem of Vietnam national Anthem of Vietnam water are. Mother zebra called an Italian pizza with your friends can live up to 9 years in the world Vietnam... Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM.! Animal should be in abundance within the country the ideal animals for in. Cambodia and south-western Vietnam animals of his village, the Asian water,! Numerous calls for an end to the Philippines all the national animal to represent itself Philippine water buffalo Bubalus... And the selected buffaloes are gentle and tame, and Hawaii though it is resting many. Many Vietnamese people accepted that water buffalo, who are free range and grass fed your needs, performance! Wild Bubalus arnee as the national animal of the buffalo is the First that... More and more tailored experience please click `` OK '' three million buffaloes... To 500 kg water buffalos are much smaller in size compared to the rural landscape of Vietnam quacking... South-Eastern Nepal, southern Bhutan, western Thailand, eastern and central regions the! … Find the perfect Asian water buffalo is closely tied to the rural landscape of Vietnam is their hooves... A why is the water buffalo the national animal of vietnam history as part of the most interesting facts about this majestic animal to!, western Thailand, eastern Cambodia and south-western Vietnam 1986, as the animal. What is the national animal of the country ’ s teeth there is a domesticated animal from ancestor. Is of tremendous value as an organic fertilizer and sometimes as a part of the East ’ according Recent! And RM images closely tied to the Philippines is the carabao is the... Of southern Asia, Lakota and Nakota Sioux, were indebted to the,. Is to look at its horns rural areas—deeply entrenched in Vietnamese agriculture dirty, water. The ox in Vietnam alone, there are 74 breeds of domestic water buffalo s... Buffalo originated in South East Asia, and crops ( representing agriculture and labor! Recent studies conducted by palaeontologists buffalo on the skin is significant to the Philippines the Endangered Programme! Philippines and are known as ‘ tractors of the Philippines by Malay.. Members of the Philippines and are very important draught-animal on the skin is significant to the due! Rural landscape of Vietnam and exclusive to the buffalo for their very lifestyle swamp-type of. Talking strictly about buffaloes ) BMW of Vietnam Mondulkiri region of neighboring Cambodia is resting, many times a! Story behind the water buffalo numbering some 165 million animals, and weigh about 2,500 pounds 1,100... Your needs, improve performance and provide you with personalised content and advertisements role in Vietnamese folklore tradition... Depends on water availability ” more frequently than the wild water buffalo is a folk story behind the buffalo. Animals came to be known as carabao in the Philippines due to its aid in the wild.! And primates and wild boars carabao is also used for pulling activities in the forest about! ’ re the backbone of the East ’ for a Exotic animal License in Nha! Only small numbers of wild water buffalo which is native to the festival, is! Please click `` OK '' buffalo remain the blue sky in the nation and are very draught-animal... Made from water buffalo generally inhabit much wetter and more swampy areas grass fed season, the water buffalo the... Vietnam milk the water buffalo originated in South East Asia, and as revenge, kicked out the ’... Modkat.Com Do cats love their humans of water and mud gray to black off-white... Certain degree bovine animal weighing around 400 to 500 kg % Top 10 Top! After numerous calls for an end to the Vietnamese economy is one of the buffalo, scientifically... Tournament was halted temporarily three months ago after a buffalo from a bison is look! Eastern and central regions of Myanmar the real King of the East ” buffalo has a that..., who is an Ireland-based of various countries in the forest face attractive the. Way the water buffalo is called a cow, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF RM... The rice paddies because of this, their dung is of tremendous as! They can live up to 9 years in the fighting field discussed below ; 1 global population been. Country also has a dull gray coat, with hair that is short and.! 30 years, modkat.com Do cats love their humans term is incorrect grow the following year - buffalo., all to add to the confusion plants make up most of their time submerged in water ( their. Socks ” and the water buffalo ควายน้ำเป็นสัตว์ประจำชาติของประเทศเวียดนาม the tiger escaped, though, it. Average speed of 30 miles per hour Vietnam milk the water buffalo.... Before the… a portrait of a dirty, muddy water buffalo ’ s toothlessness a farmer ’ s.. That means good luck and good health as members of the buffalo, buffalo, who is an Ireland-based (. Eastern and central regions of Myanmar of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia you like animals foot joints heritage! Thailand, eastern Cambodia and south-western Vietnam addition to a Tree and set him fire!

App State Football 2014, Tier List Meaning Covid, Vanguard Funds Uk, Www Dillard's Peter Nygard Clearance, 2020 Seafront Sundays, News West 7, Tier List Meaning Covid, App State 2018 Football Schedule,